Speech Portrait of a Doctor as a Realization of Penal Servitude Discourse in the Book by V. M. Doroshevich “Sakhalin”


The article presents the results of a study of a doctor's speech portrait in the book “Sakhalin” by V. M. Doroshevich. Penal servitude discourse functions in the book as one of the variants of political discourse, which is usually controlled by the authorities. Doroshevich shows two different worlds on Sakhalin at the end of the 19th century: the world of convicts and settlers on the one hand, and the world of prison administration and the island authorities that opposes them, on the other. A doctor occupies an intermediate position between them. Some of the doctors tend towards the administrative world; they see prisoners primarily as criminals. Other doctors treat the patient in front of them first of all as a person who needs medical help. Such medical personalities arouse the sympathy of the author. This study regards speech portraits within the framework of the chosen problem as individual speech manners, which serve as a realization of the common penal servitude discourse, formed by time, place and sociocultural factors. The doctor is shown in three main communicative situations: with prisoners or settlers, with representatives of the prison administration, and – the third option, – with the narrator. The author strives for lapidarity, so he usually chooses one situation that allows him to create the speech portrait of a doctor using as few expressive means as possible. The speech portraits of doctors in Doroshevich's book constitute a document of the turn of the century and make it possible to recreate the image of one socio-professional group.


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